Sep 4 2015
Merijn van Tooren

Device recognition

After thorough preparation, we have lift-off with the development of device classification for the Crownstone! For now I’m using second-hand data and starting with basic techniques, but with an accuracy in tests of 93.7% after just the first week of actual implementation and experimentation, the future looks bright!

Here’s some stats and a confusion matrix of my latest cross-validation test, where you can see what kind of devices we can already identify. This classification method takes ‘traces’ of 24 hours as input, with a power level in Watts, each second. I extract 14 hand-implemented features from that data, and feed them through a Random Committee classifier from the Weka set. RandomCommittee follows the same concept as Random Forest.

The numbers correspond to classification results. The row pertains to the device from which the data was measured, and the column indicates the decision made by the classifier.

Stratified cross-validation

Results are promising!

Description Quantity Percentage
Correctly Classified Instances 1709 93.7466 %
Incorrectly Classified Instances 114 6.2534 %
Kappa statistic 0.9337  
Mean absolute error 0.0065  
Root mean squared error 0.0537  
Relative absolute error 14.792 %  
Root relative squared error 36.2652 %  
Total Number of Instances 1823  

Confusion Matrix

The confusion matrix shows which devices are easy and which ones are hard to distinguish from each other.

 a   b   c   d   e   f   g   h   i   j   k   l   m   n   o   p   q   r   s   t   u   v   w   x   y   z  aa  ab  ac  ad  ae  af  ag  ah  ai  aj  ak  al  am  an  ao  ap  aq   <-- classified as
 4   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |   a = Alarmclock
 0  89   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |   b = Amplifier
 0   0  43   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |   c = BeanToCupCoffeemaker
 0   0   0  13   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |   d = Breadcutter
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |   e = CdPlayer
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |   f = Charger-PSP
 0   0   0   0   0   1   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |   g = Charger-Smartphone
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0  80   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |   h = Coffeemaker
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1  14   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |   i = Cookingstove
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0  23   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |   j = DigitalTvReceiver
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0  73   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   0   0   0 |   k = Dishwasher
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0   0   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |   l = DvdPlayer
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0  28   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   4   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |   m = EthernetSwitch
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   9   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |   n = Freezer
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |   o = Iron
 0   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0  74   0   0   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   1   0   0   0   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3 |   p = Lamp
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   7   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0 |   q = LaundryDryer
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0  56   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |   r = MicrowaveOven
 0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0  10  11   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |   s = Monitor-CRT
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0  12 176   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |   t = Monitor-TFT
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0  13   0   0   0   2   0   0   0   1   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |   u = Multimediacenter
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0 150   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |   v = PC-Desktop
 0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   1  64   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |   w = PC-Laptop
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0  11   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |   x = Playstation3
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0  15   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |   y = Printer
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   7   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |   z = Projector
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 204   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |  aa = Refrigerator
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   9   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |  ab = RemoteDesktop
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   4   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0  36   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |  ac = Router
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   1   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   5   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |  ad = SolarThermalSystem
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0  25   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |  ae = Subwoofer
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0  22   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |  af = Toaster
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0  33   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |  ag = TV-CRT
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   5   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 110   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |  ah = TV-LCD
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0  28   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |  ai = USBHarddrive
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0  10   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |  aj = USBHub
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |  ak = VacuumCleaner
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   0   0  16   0   0   0   0   0 |  al = VideoProjector
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   0   0   0   0   1   0   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0  51   0   0   0   0 |  am = Washingmachine
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 |  an = WaterBoiler
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0  55   0   0 |  ao = WaterFountain
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0 133   0 |  ap = WaterKettle
 0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   4 |  aq = XmasLights

Ideas for improvement are many, and this was just the first week. Things are looking up for classification! Cheers~

04 September 2015



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